GFS (Global Forecast System) Global Model from the "National Centers for Environmental Prediction" (NCEP)
4 times per day, from 3:30, 09:30, 15:30 and 21:30 UTC
Greenwich Mean Time:
12:00 UTC = 12:00 GMT
0.5° x 0.5° for forecast time <= 384 hrs/div>
Maximum wind velocity of convective wind gusts
The method of Ivens (1987) is used by the forecasters at KNMI to predict the
maximum wind velocity associated with heavy showers or thunderstorms. The
method of Ivens is based on two multiple regression equations that were
derived using about 120 summertime cases (April to September) between 1980 and 1983.
The upper-air data were derived from the soundings at De Bilt, and
thunder by synop stations were used as an indicator of the presence of
The regression equations for the maximum wind velocity (wmax
) in m/s
to Ivens (1987) are:
- if Tx - θw850 < 9°C
- wmax = 7.66 + 0.653⋅(θw850 - θw500 ) + 0.976⋅U850
- if Tx - θw850 ≥ 9° C
- wmax = 8.17 + 0.473⋅(θw850 - θw500 ) + (0.174⋅U850 + 0.057⋅U250)⋅√(Tx - θw850)
- Tx is the maximum day-time temperature at 2 m in K
- θwxxx the potential wet-bulb temperature at xxx hPa in K
- Uxxx the wind velocity at xxx hPa in m/s.
The amount of negative buoyancy, which is estimated in these
by the difference of the potential wet-bulb temperature at 850 and at 500 hPa,
and horizontal wind velocities at one or two fixed altitudes are used to estimate
the maximum wind velocity. The effect of precipitation loading is not taken into
account by the method of Ivens.
The Global Forecast System (GFS
) is a global numerical weather prediction computer model run by NOAA. This mathematical model is run four times a day and produces forecasts up to 16 days in advance, but with decreasing spatial and temporal resolution over time it is widely accepted that beyond 7 days the forecast is very general and not very accurate.
The model is run in two parts: the first part has a higher resolution and goes out to 180 hours (7 days) in the future, the second part runs from 180 to 384 hours (16 days) at a lower resolution. The resolution of the model varies in each part of the model: horizontally, it divides the surface of the earth into 35 or 70 kilometre grid squares; vertically, it divides the atmosphere into 64 layers and temporally, it produces a forecast for every 3rd hour for the first 180 hours, after that they are produced for every 12th hour.
Numerical weather prediction uses current weather conditions as input into mathematical models of the atmosphere to predict the weather. Although the first efforts to accomplish this were done in the 1920s, it wasn't until the advent of the computer and computer simulation that it was feasible to do in real-time. Manipulating the huge datasets and performing the complex calculations necessary to do this on a resolution fine enough to make the results useful requires the use of some of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. A number of forecast models, both global and regional in scale, are run to help create forecasts for nations worldwide. Use of model ensemble forecasts helps to define the forecast uncertainty and extend weather forecasting farther into the future than would otherwise be possible.
Wikipedia, Numerical weather prediction, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_weather_prediction
(as of Feb. 9, 2010, 20:50 UTC).
These charts are for guidance only, actually gusts may be considerably higher than those shown.